Etecsa is Cuba's state telecoms monopoly, responsible for fixed national, international and public telephony as well as mobile communications and internet and data.

Being shut off from the world by the US embargo combined with state controls of a communist government have meant Cuba has fallen way behind in the digital revolution.

In 2015, Cuba had the lowest rate of mobile telephony penetration in Latin America with 29.65%, half that of Haiti (68.84%), according to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

However, due to new policies from the Cuban government to improve connectivity, starting with allowing normal citizens to own mobile phones for the first time in 2008 and access to the internet in 2013, communications have been improving.

The government has said its goal is to reach internet in 50% of households and 60% mobile penetration by 2020.

The thawing of relations with the US government, started by former US president Barack Obama, who last year became the first US head state to visit the island in nearly a century, have also helped and led to a slew of international roaming agreements between Etecsa and the major US telecom carriers, plus commitments from prominent internet companies like Google, Airbnb and Netflix to activate services on the island nation.

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