Brazil's National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP) is the regulatory agency that oversees activities undertaken by the oil, natural gas and biofuel industries in the country. It is in charge of issuing non-statutory regulations (resolution, norms) for these sectors, awarding exploration, development and production licenses and concessions, and conducting regulatory inspections, directly or through other state entities. Created in 1997 and linked to the Mines and Energy Ministry, the agency publishes statistics and sponsors geological and geophysical surveys to define the areas with production potential. Additionally, the contracts for oil and gas exploration and production include an RD&I Clause, which requires a commitment from the signatory companies to invest in research, development and innovation projects and programs. Based on oil and gas production metrics, the Rio de Janeiro-headquartered state agency also defines interests for the government and third parties, as well as taxes -such as royalties- that oil companies are obliged to pay by contract.